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TableofContents_Unified Development Ordinance_Updated_03-21-2022 ARTICLE 1: GENERAL PROVISIONS .................................................... 1-1 Section 1.1. Title ................................................................................................................................. 1-1 Section 1.2. Authority ......................................................................................................................... 1-1 1.2.1. General Authority ................................................................................................................ 1-1 1.2.2. References to North Carolina General Statutes. ................................................................ 1-1 Section 1.3. General Purpose and Intent ........................................................................................... 1-1 Section 1.4. Applicability and Jurisdiction .......................................................................................... 1-2 1.4.1. General Applicability ........................................................................................................... 1-2 1.4.2. Exemptions ......................................................................................................................... 1-2 1.4.3. No Development Until Compliance With This Ordinance ................................................... 1-2 Section 1.5. Relationship with the Comprehensive Plan ................................................................... 1-2 Section 1.6. Relationship with other Laws ......................................................................................... 1-2 1.6.1. Conflicts with other County Codes or Laws ........................................................................ 1-2 1.6.2. Conflicts with State or Federal Law .................................................................................... 1-2 1.6.3. Relationship to Private Agreements/Conflicts with Private Agreements ............................ 1-3 1.6.4. Existing Agreements or Vested Rights ............................................................................... 1-3 Section 1.7. Transitional Provisions ................................................................................................... 1-3 1.7.1. Effective Date ..................................................................................................................... 1-3 1.7.2. Construction in Progress .................................................................................................... 1-3 1.7.3. Approvals Granted Before Effective Date .......................................................................... 1-3 1.7.4. Applications in Progress Before Effective Date .................................................................. 1-4 1.7.5. Violations Continue ............................................................................................................. 1-4 1.7.6. Nonconformities .................................................................................................................. 1-5 1.7.7. Permit Choice ..................................................................................................................... 1-5 Section 1.8. Severability ..................................................................................................................... 1-5 Section 1.9. Technical Corrections .................................................................................................... 1-6 ARTICLE 2: MEASUREMENTS AND DEFINITIONS .............................. 2-1 Section 2.1. Measurements ................................................................................................................ 2-1 Section 2.2. Rules of Construction ..................................................................................................... 2-3 2.2.1. Meanings and Intent ........................................................................................................... 2-3 2.2.2. Headings, Illustrations, and Text ........................................................................................ 2-3 2.2.3. Lists and Examples............................................................................................................. 2-4 2.2.4. Computation of Time .......................................................................................................... 2-4 2.2.5. References to Other Regulations/Publications ................................................................... 2-4 2.2.6. Delegation of Authority ....................................................................................................... 2-4 2.2.7. Public Officials and Agencies ............................................................................................. 2-4 2.2.8. Mandatory and Discretionary Terms .................................................................................. 2-5 2.2.9. Conjunctions ....................................................................................................................... 2-5 2.2.10. Tenses and Plurals ............................................................................................................. 2-5 2.2.11. Term not Defined ................................................................................................................ 2-5 2.2.12. Use and Occupation ........................................................................................................... 2-5 Section 2.3. Definitions and Terms .................................................................................................... 2-5 ARTICLE 3: ZONING DISTRICTS........................................................... 3-1 Section 3.1. General ........................................................................................................................... 3-1 3.1.1. Zoning Map and Interpretation ........................................................................................... 3-1 3.1.2. Establishment of Zoning Districts ....................................................................................... 3-2 3.1.3. Superseding Dimensional Standards ................................................................................. 3-3 Section 3.2. Residential Zoning Districts .......................................................................................... 3-13 3.2.1. Intent ................................................................................................................................. 3-13 3.2.2. Established Residential Zoning Districts .......................................................................... 3-13 3.2.3. Residential District Specific Standards ............................................................................. 3-14 3.2.4. Rural Agricultural (RA) District .......................................................................................... 3-14 3.2.5. Airport Residential (AR) District ........................................................................................ 3-16 3.2.6. Residential 20S (R-20S) ................................................................................................... 3-20 3.2.7. Residential 20 (R-20) District ............................................................................................ 3-22 3.2.8. Residential 15 (R-15) District ............................................................................................ 3-24 3.2.9. Residential 10 (R-10) District ............................................................................................ 3-26 3.2.10. Residential 7 (R-7) District ................................................................................................ 3-28 3.2.11. Residential Moderate-High Density (R-5) District ............................................................. 3-30 3.2.12. Residential Multi-Family Low Density (RMF-L) District .................................................... 3-32 3.2.13. Residential Multi-Family Moderate Density (RMF-M) District........................................... 3-34 3.2.14. Residential Multi-Family Medium-High Density (RMF-MH) District .................................. 3-36 3.2.15. Residential Multi-Family High Density (RMF-H) District ................................................... 3-38 Section 3.3. Mixed Use Zoning Districts .......................................................................................... 3-41 3.3.1. Intent ................................................................................................................................. 3-41 3.3.2. Established Mixed Use Zoning Districts ........................................................................... 3-41 3.3.3. General Requirements for Mixed Use Zoning Districts .................................................... 3-41 3.3.4. Urban Mixed Use Zoning (UMXZ) .................................................................................... 3-44 3.3.5. Riverfront Mixed Use (RFMU) Planned Development District .......................................... 3-50 3.3.6. Exceptional Design (EDZD) Planned Development District ............................................. 3-63 3.3.7. Planned Development (PD) District .................................................................................. 3-72 Section 3.4. Commercial and Industrial Districts .............................................................................. 3-77 3.4.1. Intent ................................................................................................................................. 3-77 3.4.2. Established Commercial and Industrial Zoning Districts .................................................. 3-77 3.4.3. Neighborhood Business (B-1) District .............................................................................. 3-78 3.4.4. Community Business (CB) District ................................................................................... 3-80 3.4.5. Regional Business (B-2) District ....................................................................................... 3-82 3.4.6. Office and Institutional (O&I) District ................................................................................ 3-84 3.4.7. Shopping Center (SC) District .......................................................................................... 3-88 3.4.8. Commercial Services (CS) District ................................................................................... 3-90 3.4.9. Airport Commerce (AC) District ........................................................................................ 3-92 3.4.10. Light Industrial (I-1) District ............................................................................................... 3-96 3.4.11. Heavy Industrial (I-2) District ............................................................................................ 3-98 Section 3.5. Overlay and Special Purpose Districts ....................................................................... 3-101 3.5.1. Intent ............................................................................................................................... 3-101 3.5.2. Established Overlay and Special Purpose Zoning Districts ........................................... 3-101 3.5.3. Special Highway Overlay (SHOD) District ...................................................................... 3-102 3.5.4. Water Supply Watershed Overlay (WSW) District ......................................................... 3-104 3.5.5. Conditional Zoning (CZ) District ..................................................................................... 3-106 ARTICLE 4: USES AND USE-SPECIFIC STANDARDS ......................... 4-1 Section 4.1. Categorization of Principal Uses .................................................................................... 4-1 4.1.1. Organization ....................................................................................................................... 4-1 4.1.2. Application and Interpretation ............................................................................................. 4-1 4.1.3. Classification of New or Unlisted Uses ............................................................................... 4-2 4.1.4. Use Classifications ............................................................................................................. 4-2 Section 4.2. Allocation of Principal Uses ............................................................................................ 4-3 4.2.1. Principal Use Permissions .................................................................................................. 4-3 Section 4.3. Standards for Specified Principal Uses ........................................................................ 4-23 4.3.1. Agricultural Uses ............................................................................................................... 4-23 4.3.2. Residential Uses ............................................................................................................... 4-23 4.3.3. Civic & Institutional Uses .................................................................................................. 4-33 4.3.4. Commercial Uses ............................................................................................................. 4-45 4.3.5. Industrial Uses .................................................................................................................. 4-54 Section 4.4. Accessory Use and Structure Standards ..................................................................... 4-61 4.4.1. Purpose ............................................................................................................................ 4-61 4.4.2. Approval of Accessory Uses and Structures .................................................................... 4-61 4.4.3. Permissions for Specified Accessory Uses and Structures.............................................. 4-62 4.4.4. Standards for Specified Accessory Uses and Structures ................................................. 4-63 Section 4.5. Temporary Use Standards ........................................................................................... 4-68 4.5.1. Purpose ............................................................................................................................ 4-68 4.5.2. General Standards for Temporary Uses........................................................................... 4-68 4.5.3. Permissions for Specified Temporary Uses ..................................................................... 4-68 4.5.4. Standards for Specified Temporary Uses ........................................................................ 4-69 ARTICLE 5: GENERAL DEVELOPMENT STANDARDS ........................ 5-1 Section 5.1. Parking and Loading ...................................................................................................... 5-1 5.1.1. Applicability ......................................................................................................................... 5-1 5.1.2. Minimum Off-Street Parking Standards .............................................................................. 5-1 5.1.3. Alternative Parking Plans ................................................................................................. 5-10 5.1.4. Off-Street Parking Design Standards ............................................................................... 5-14 5.1.5. Loading Areas ................................................................................................................... 5-16 Section 5.2. Traffic, Access, and Connectivity ................................................................................. 5-19 5.2.1. Visibility at Intersections in Residential Districts ............................................................... 5-19 5.2.2. Development Adjacent to Road, Right-of-Way, or Easement .......................................... 5-19 5.2.3. NCDOT Driveway Permit Required .................................................................................. 5-19 5.2.4. Traffic Impact Worksheet .................................................................................................. 5-19 Section 5.3. Tree Retention .............................................................................................................. 5-20 5.3.1. Applicability ....................................................................................................................... 5-20 5.3.2. Forestry And Property Clearing ........................................................................................ 5-20 5.3.3. Tree Inventory ................................................................................................................... 5-20 5.3.4. Tree Retention Standards ................................................................................................ 5-21 5.3.5. Tree Removal Permits ...................................................................................................... 5-22 5.3.6. Tree Protection During Construction ................................................................................ 5-22 5.3.7. Mitigation .......................................................................................................................... 5-23 5.3.8. Optional Incentives For Retaining Trees .......................................................................... 5-23 5.3.9. Removal of Hazardous Trees ........................................................................................... 5-24 Section 5.4. Landscaping and Buffering .......................................................................................... 5-25 5.4.1. Applicability ....................................................................................................................... 5-25 5.4.2. General Standards............................................................................................................ 5-26 5.4.3. Transitional Buffer Standards ........................................................................................... 5-27 5.4.4. Screening .......................................................................................................................... 5-29 5.4.5. Parking Lots ...................................................................................................................... 5-29 5.4.6. Street Yard Standards ...................................................................................................... 5-31 5.4.7. Foundation Plantings ........................................................................................................ 5-33 5.4.8. Maintenance ..................................................................................................................... 5-34 Section 5.5. Exterior Lighting ........................................................................................................... 5-34 5.5.1. Purpose and Intent ........................................................................................................... 5-34 5.5.2. Applicability ....................................................................................................................... 5-34 5.5.3. Time of Review ................................................................................................................. 5-35 5.5.4. General Standards............................................................................................................ 5-35 5.5.5. Prohibited Lighting ............................................................................................................ 5-37 5.5.6. Exemptions for Safety Reasons ....................................................................................... 5-38 Section 5.6. Signs ............................................................................................................................ 5-39 5.6.1. Purpose ............................................................................................................................ 5-39 5.6.2. General Provisions ........................................................................................................... 5-40 5.6.3. Temporary and Special Event Signs ................................................................................ 5-48 5.6.4. Outdoor Advertising Signs ................................................................................................ 5-50 Section 5.7. Conservation Resources .............................................................................................. 5-53 5.7.1. Purpose ............................................................................................................................ 5-53 5.7.2. Applicability ....................................................................................................................... 5-53 5.7.3. Conservation Space General Performance Controls ....................................................... 5-54 5.7.4. Additional Performance Controls ...................................................................................... 5-60 5.7.5. Vegetated Buffer Controls for Conservation ..................................................................... 5-62 Section 5.8. Open Space Requirements .......................................................................................... 5-65 5.8.1. Applicability ....................................................................................................................... 5-65 5.8.2. Open Space Set-Aside Standards .................................................................................... 5-65 5.8.3. Areas Counted Towards Open Space Set-Aside Standards ........................................... 5-65 5.8.5. Design Standards ............................................................................................................. 5-68 5.8.6. Ownership, Management, And Maintenance ................................................................... 5-70 5.8.7. Payments In-Leiu Of Dedication ....................................................................................... 5-70 Section 5.9. Fire Hydrants ................................................................................................................ 5-71 Section 5.10. Airport Height Restriction ............................................................................................. 5-72 5.10.1. Authority ............................................................................................................................ 5-72 5.10.2. Findings ............................................................................................................................ 5-72 5.10.3. Jurisdiction ........................................................................................................................ 5-72 5.10.4. Nonconforming Uses, Structures, and Trees ................................................................... 5-72 5.10.5. Variances .......................................................................................................................... 5-73 5.10.6. Airport Zones .................................................................................................................... 5-73 5.10.7. Airport Zone Height Limits ................................................................................................ 5-74 5.10.8. Use Restrictions ................................................................................................................ 5-75 ARTICLE 6: SUBDIVISION DESIGN AND IMPROVEMENTS ................ 6-1 Section 6.1. General Purpose ............................................................................................................ 6-1 Section 6.2. Design Standards ........................................................................................................... 6-1 6.2.1. General Provisions ............................................................................................................. 6-1 6.2.2. Specific Standards .............................................................................................................. 6-1 Section 6.3. Improvements ............................................................................................................... 6-12 6.3.1. In General ......................................................................................................................... 6-12 6.3.2. Guarantees of Improvements ........................................................................................... 6-13 6.3.3. Required Improvements ................................................................................................... 6-14 6.3.4. Property Owners’ Association (POA) ............................................................................... 6-19 ARTICLE 7: STORMWATER MANAGEMENT ....................................... 7-1 ARTICLE 8: EROSION AND SEDIMENTATION CONTROL .................. 8-1 Section 8.1. Title ................................................................................................................................. 8-1 Section 8.2. Purposes ........................................................................................................................ 8-1 Section 8.3. Definitions ....................................................................................................................... 8-1 Section 8.4. Scope and Exclusions .................................................................................................... 8-5 Section 8.5. General Requirements ................................................................................................... 8-6 Section 8.6. Basic Control Objectives ................................................................................................ 8-6 Section 8.7. Mandatory Standards for Land-Disturbing Activity ......................................................... 8-7 Section 8.8. Design and Performance Standards .............................................................................. 8-8 Section 8.9. Stormwater Outlet Protection ......................................................................................... 8-9 Section 8.10. Borrow and Waste Areas ............................................................................................. 8-11 Section 8.11. Access and Haul Roads ............................................................................................... 8-11 Section 8.12. Operations in Lakes, Natural Watercourses ................................................................ 8-11 Section 8.13. Responsibility for Maintenance .................................................................................... 8-11 Section 8.14. Restoration of Areas Affected by Failure to Comply .................................................... 8-11 Section 8.15. Additional Measures ..................................................................................................... 8-12 Section 8.16. Areas Not Otherwise Covered ..................................................................................... 8-12 Section 8.17. Permits ......................................................................................................................... 8-12 Section 8.18. Erosion and Sedimentation Control Plans ................................................................... 8-13 Section 8.19. Plan Review Appeals ................................................................................................... 8-17 Section 8.20. Inspections and Investigations ..................................................................................... 8-19 Section 8.21. Penalties ....................................................................................................................... 8-19 Section 8.22. Injunctive Relief ............................................................................................................ 8-21 Section 8.23. Severability ................................................................................................................... 8-21 Section 8.24. Effective Date ............................................................................................................... 8-21 Section 8.25. Reserved ...................................................................................................................... 8-21 ARTICLE 9: FLOOD DAMAGE PREVENTION ....................................... 9-1 Section 9.1. Statutory Authorization ................................................................................................... 9-1 Section 9.2. Findings of Fact .............................................................................................................. 9-1 Section 9.3. Purpose .......................................................................................................................... 9-1 Section 9.4. Objectives ....................................................................................................................... 9-2 Section 9.5. Definitions ....................................................................................................................... 9-2 Section 9.6. General Provisions ....................................................................................................... 9-11 9.6.1. Applicability and Basis for Special Flood Hazard Areas................................................... 9-11 9.6.2. Establishment of Floodplain Development Permit ............................................................ 9-12 9.6.3. Compliance ....................................................................................................................... 9-12 9.6.4. Abrogation and Greater Restrictions ................................................................................ 9-12 9.6.5. Interpretation ..................................................................................................................... 9-12 9.6.6. Warning and Disclaimer of Liability .................................................................................. 9-12 9.6.7. Penalties for Violations ..................................................................................................... 9-12 Section 9.7. Administration ............................................................................................................... 9-13 9.7.1. Designation of Floodplain Administrator ........................................................................... 9-13 9.7.2. Floodplain Development Application, Permit and Certification ........................................ 9-13 9.7.3. Duties and Responsibilities of the Floodplain Administrator ............................................ 9-18 9.7.4. Corrective Procedures ...................................................................................................... 9-20 9.7.5. Variance Procedures ........................................................................................................ 9-21 Section 9.8. Provisions for Flood Hazard Reduction ....................................................................... 9-23 9.8.1. General Standards............................................................................................................ 9-23 9.8.2. Specific Standards ............................................................................................................ 9-25 9.8.3. Standards for Floodplains Without Established Base Flood Elevations ........................... 9-32 9.8.4. Standards for Riverine Floodplains With Base Flood Elevations but Without Established Floodways or Non-Encroachment Areas ...................................................... 9-33 9.8.5. Floodways and Non-Encroachment Areas ....................................................................... 9-33 9.8.6. Coastal High Hazard Area (Zone VE). ............................................................................. 9-34 9.8.7. Standards for Coastal A Zones (Zone CAZ) LiMWA ........................................................ 9-37 9.8.8. Standards for Areas of Shallow Flooding (Zone AO) ....................................................... 9-38 9.8.9. Effect on Rights and Liabilities Under the Existing Flood Damage Prevention Ordinance ......................................................................................................................... 9-39 9.8.10. Effect Upon Outstanding Floodplain Development Permits ............................................. 9-39 ARTICLE 10: ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES ................................ 10-1 Section 10.1. Advisory and Decision-Making Bodies ......................................................................... 10-1 10.1.1. General ............................................................................................................................. 10-1 10.1.2. Board of Commissioners .................................................................................................. 10-2 10.1.3. Planning Board ................................................................................................................. 10-3 10.1.4. Board of Adjustment ......................................................................................................... 10-4 10.1.5. Technical Review Committee (TRC) ................................................................................ 10-5 10.1.6. Planning Director .............................................................................................................. 10-7 10.1.7. County Engineer ............................................................................................................... 10-8 Section 10.2. Standard Review Procedures ...................................................................................... 10-8 10.2.1. General ............................................................................................................................. 10-8 10.2.2. Pre-Application Conference .............................................................................................. 10-8 10.2.3. Community Information Meeting ....................................................................................... 10-9 10.2.4. Application Submittal and Acceptance ........................................................................... 10-10 10.2.5. Staff Review and Action ................................................................................................. 10-12 10.2.6. Public Hearing and Preliminary Forum Scheduling and Public Notification ................... 10-13 10.2.7. Public Hearing and Preliminary Forum Procedures ....................................................... 10-18 10.2.8. Advisory Body Review and Action .................................................................................. 10-20 10.2.9. Decision-making Body Review and Action ..................................................................... 10-21 10.2.10. Post-decision Limitations and Actions ......................................................................... 10-22 Section 10.3. Application-Specific Procedures ................................................................................ 10-24 10.3.1. Text Amendment ............................................................................................................ 10-24 10.3.2. Zoning Map Amendment ................................................................................................ 10-26 10.3.3. Conditional Zoning .......................................................................................................... 10-29 10.3.4. Master Planned Development ........................................................................................ 10-33 10.3.5. Special Use Permit ......................................................................................................... 10-38 10.3.6. Site Plan ......................................................................................................................... 10-42 10.3.7. Subdivision ..................................................................................................................... 10-45 10.3.8. Zoning Compliance Approval ......................................................................................... 10-53 10.3.9. Tree Removal Permit ...................................................................................................... 10-54 10.3.10. Floodplain Development Permit ................................................................................... 10-56 10.3.11. Variance – Zoning and Subdivision ............................................................................. 10-56 10.3.12. Variance – Floodplain .................................................................................................. 10-59 10.3.13. Reasonable Accommodation ....................................................................................... 10-59 10.3.14. Appeal of Administrative Decision ............................................................................... 10-61 10.3.15. Interpretation ................................................................................................................ 10-63 ARTICLE 11: NONCONFORMING SITUATIONS ................................. 11-1 Section 11.1. General Applicability .................................................................................................... 11-1 Section 11.2. Use of Undeveloped Nonconforming Lots ................................................................... 11-1 11.2.1. Nonconforming Single Lot of Record ................................................................................ 11-1 11.2.2. Nonconforming Vacant Contiguous Lots of Record ......................................................... 11-1 Section 11.3. Completion of Nonconforming Projects ....................................................................... 11-1 Section 11.4. Extension or Enlargement of Nonconforming Situations ............................................. 11-1 11.4.1. Existing Industrial Uses .................................................................................................... 11-2 11.4.2. Modifications and/or Expansions of Existing Industrial Uses ........................................... 11-2 Section 11.5. Change in Kind of Nonconforming Use ........................................................................ 11-4 Section 11.6. Abandonment and Discontinuance of Nonconforming Situations ................................ 11-4 Section 11.7. Nonconforming Signs .................................................................................................. 11-5 11.7.1. Determination of Nonconformity ....................................................................................... 11-5 11.7.2. Loss of Nonconforming Status ......................................................................................... 11-5 11.7.3. Maintenance and Repair of Nonconforming Signs ........................................................... 11-5 ARTICLE 12: VIOLATIONS AND ENFORCEMENT ............................. 12-1 Section 12.1. General Provisions ....................................................................................................... 12-1 12.1.1. Purpose ............................................................................................................................ 12-1 12.1.2. Compliance Required ....................................................................................................... 12-1 Section 12.2. Violations and Responsible Persons............................................................................ 12-1 12.2.1. Violations Generally .......................................................................................................... 12-1 12.2.2. Specific Violations ............................................................................................................. 12-1 12.2.3. Responsible Persons ........................................................................................................ 12-2 Section 12.3. Enforcement Responsibility and Procedures ............................................................... 12-2 12.3.1. Responsibility for Enforcement ......................................................................................... 12-2 12.3.2. Complaints Regarding Violations ..................................................................................... 12-3 12.3.3. Inspections ........................................................................................................................ 12-3 12.3.4. Enforcement Procedure .................................................................................................... 12-3 12.3.5. Application of Remedies and Penalties ............................................................................ 12-4 12.3.6. Emergency Enforcement without Notice .......................................................................... 12-4 Section 12.4. Remedies and Penalties .............................................................................................. 12-4 APPENDICES ........................................................................................ A-1 Appendix 1: Final Plat Certificates ........................................................................................................ A-1